Ionosphere and Space Weather


Last Ionospheric Events

  • 2021-03-01 : Ionospheric activity due to Coronal Mass Ejection (more here)
  • 2020-04-20 : Ionospheric activity due to geomagnetic activity (more here)
  • 2020-04-06 : GPS signal power change (more here)
  • ... more events here

Near-Real Time Ionospheric Products

Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) estimated in Near Real-Time (NRT) every 5 minutes with multi-GNSS data (GPS+GLONASS+Galileo) from the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) (before the 20/05/2022, every 15 minutes with GPS-only data).

  1. Interactive Maps: display animated VTEC maps (movie) for a requested period and VTEC value at a given location and time. (4-5 sec to load).
  2. Statistical Maps and Plots: statistics to compare the ionosphere for a requested time with respect to the 15 previous days.
  3. VTEC Time Series: the VTEC evolution over time and its median of the 15 previous days (24h prediction), extracted from the VTEC maps at 3 different locations (North of Europe, Brussels and South of Europe).
  4. Data are publicly available in IONEX format at We request that users include a citation or an acknowledgment when using ROB VTEC data or products results in a publication. See disclaimer and copyright for more information.

VTEC Scale
VTEC Time Series

Solar Radio Burst Warnings for GNSS Applications in Europe

Solar Radio Bursts (SRB) emitted at the GNSS frequencies can affect the GNSS signal reception. To detect such event, a near-real time SRB warning system with a 4-level index was set in Europe using the real-time EUREF Permanent Network.

Publications and Communications

Bergeot N., Chevalier J.-M., Bruyninx C., Pottiaux E., Aerts W., Baire Q., Legrand J., P. Defraigne and W. Huang, "Near real-time ionospheric monitoring over Europe at the Royal Observatory of Belgium using GNSS data", J. Space Weather Space Clim., 2014, 4 A31, doi:

Bergeot N., Bruyninx C., Defraigne P., Pireaux S., Legrand J., Pottiaux E., Baire Q., "Impact of the Halloween 2003 Ionospheric Storm on Kinematic GPS Positioning in Europe", GPS Solutions, 2010, doi: 10.1007/s10291-010-0181-9.

Chevalier J.-M., Benoit L., Bergeot N., Bruyninx C., Legrand J., Burston R., Defraigne P., Pottiaux E., Baire Q., "Near Real Time GPS-Based Ionospheric Models : Application to Belgium", AGU Fall Meeting, 12-17/12/2010, San Francisco, USA.

Bergeot N., Chevalier J.-M., Benoit L., Bruyninx C., Legrand J., Pottiaux E., Baire Q., Defraigne P., "Near Real Time Ionospheric Models from European Permanent Network GPS Data", EUREF Annual Sym, 24-27/05/2011, Chisinau, Moldova.